Monday and Tuesday of the conference are where we hold the "sprints". These are a tradition of PyCons around the world.
Open source sprints are where developers, designers and documentors sit down together to put into practice all the features and bug fixes they've been thinking about, taking advantage of the "high bandwidth" face-to-face setting to share experience, knowledge and of course pull requests!
They are self-directed/self-organised, so whoever wants to volunteer to
lead a sprint effort can do so. Most sprints welcome new contributors
and we encourage projects to identify issues suitable for first timers.
If you have never contributed to open source software before, we invite
you to join us and make a start at PyCon Australia! All you have to
bring is your enthusiasm and your laptop.
Tennessee Leeuwenburg's talk about sprints, from PyCon AU 2015
Sprint attendees, check out these arguments for why not join the sprints? and how to get ready for the development sprints (also from PyCon US 2016, so not totally the same as here, but pretty similar!).